Order: Anseriformes         Family: Anatidae                 
Duck (Muscovy) Anas domesticus

Duck  a word that comes from the old English duce “diver” a deriviative of the verb ducan “to duck, bend down low or get under something to dive”. 

Duck in its present form is a common name for a large number of species in the Anatidae family of birds which also includes both swan and geese.

Of the skull the bill is of much interest in that it has developed over millions of years such that it is able to crop and eat grasses, aquatic vegetation, small fish,  insects, grubs and to also filter out tiny micro-organisums from the water via the use of rows of tiny plates that line their teeth.  This advanced water filtering system is similar to the Blue Whales that feed in the oceans


Order: Artiodactyla         Family: Camelidae                      
Alpaca Vicugna pacos

Skulls:  Alpaca originating from South America are to be found in New Zealand where they are farmed for their fine wool and as a limited meat source from which heads are obtained. The heads come with a 1/8” hole that after cleaning, degreasing and bleaching are repaired resulting in an almost invisible repair. 

Teeth Count:  a formulation is given for teeth count and as such applies to a perfect mature model Alpaca, within nature there are imperfections and teeth (wear, cracks, fail to erupt) fall well into this category.

Skull Dimensions:  Length,  230 to 250 mm.  Width, 120 to 130 mm. Height, 120 to 145 mm


Order: Artiodactyla Family: Ovidae
Sheep Ovis aries
Order: Artiodactyla Family:Bovidae
Tahr Hemitragus jemlahicus
Order: Struthioniformes Family: Struthionidae
Ostrich Struthio camelus

Ratitae (Emu, Rhea, Ostrich and Kiwi) are flightless birds, and having much in common with birds of flight, also have interesting differences.

Skulls have (1) Large basi-pterygoid processes developed from the basi-sphenoid. (2) Vomer is large and broad. (3) Quadrate articulates with the skull by a single, or partially divided facet.

Skeleton- Sternal keel is vestigial or absent.

Feathers-have lost the lamuli (barbules), and the vanes become no longer resistant to air and inhibit flight.

More Articles...

  1. Wallaby
  2. Hare
  3. Rat
  4. Tuatara